Dating and marriage customs in portugal
Moreover, there is no longer any fixed age at which the minor orders may be received. Canonists, including Benedict XIV (Constitution, "Eo quamvis," 4 May, 1745), admit that minor orders may be conferred not only on those who have reached the age of puberty, but on boys over seven years.In fact, minor orders are usually conferred on ecclesiastical students during their seminary studies. Although several medieval theologians regarded minor orders as sacramental, this view is no longer held, for the fundamental reason that minor orders, also the subdiaconate, are not of Divine or Apostolic origin.The other ecclesiastical functions were rather offices, entrusted to clerics, whether ordained or not.Thus in the first centuries there figured in the ranks of the clergy notaries, defensores ecclesiae, oeconomi , catechists, cantors, fossores (for the cemeteries ), etc., to say nothing of deaconesses.This explains why minor orders differ in the Latin Church and in the various Eastern Churches.In the East, though at an early date we hear of porters and exorcists (never of acolytes ), after the Trullan Synod in 692, in accordance with its sixth canon, only lectors and cantors are known, and often even these orders coalesce, or are conferred at the same time ; the three other minor orders of the Latin Church (porter, exorcist, acolyte ) are held to be included in the subdiaconate. There are, then, in the Western Church four minor orders: porter, lector, exorcist, and acolyte ; the cantors merely exercise an office and are not an order.But these various offices did not constitute orders, and those who filled them formed part of the clergy without having been ordained, like tonsured clerics and lay-brothers of today.As to the liturgical functions attached to the various minor orders, they are really but a participation, originally rather indefinite, in the liturgical ministry formerly confided entirely to the deacons.
At the present time the ranks of the clergy are entered by the tonsure, after which all the orders without omission are received in succession.
Formerly it did not exclude them from the ranks of the clergy, and they retained all clerical privileges, provided they contracted only one marriage and that with a virgin, and wore clerical costume and the tonsure (, "de cler. A minor cleric who marries is regarded as having forfeited his clerical privileges.
conjug." in VI); they might even be appointed to the service of a church by the bishop (Conc. (See ORDERS; ACOLYTE; EXORCIST ; LECTOR; PORTER; SUBDEACON; ABBOT; TONSURE.) Copyright 2018 Catholic Online.
We do not know how even in Rome the porters and exorcists were ordained in former times.
Lectors received a simple benediction; acolytes were created by handing them the linen bag in which they carried the Eucharist; subdeacons by the reception of the chalice.
The Council of Trent requires merely that the candidates understand Latin (Sess. The rites by which they are conferred are quite different from ordination to holy orders.